Friday, December 30, 2016

听说读写-无捷径



不管学习母语或是其他语言,没有捷径,听-说-读-写就是这个顺序。
父母在让孩子开口说话以前,必须要用声音表情简单的句子不断的重复给孩子听,孩子才有有办法在模仿中,慢慢学会运用语言,表达自己,和他人沟通。

下面的文章描述婴儿如何从父母或教养人员身上学习说话,这程序一直是我觉得跟沉浸式教学一致的方法,唯一差别在时间上,沉浸式课堂因为孩子智能发展足够,所以讯息的连结,知识的领悟,语言的取得会比婴儿快速。


苏联有几个案例,孩子是让动物带大的,这些孩子的共同特点就是语言能力的丧失,语言的学习没有输入就不会有输出。这些孩子只会学狗叫或是狼嚎,那是她们唯一接触的语言。

学生没有机会利用所学的语言,沉浸课堂就失去意义了。语言的学习贵在实践和运用。刚开始的孩子需要不断的,之后才能听和说熟悉以后,读写才会有意义。语言的取得,没有捷径,一定要经过听-说-读-写。很多老师迫不及待要学生写字,似乎那是唯一证明孩子学到中文的唯一方法。这就如同我们古时候学英文的方法,不断的写,不断的记诵,最后我们学到多少?在这种学习情况下,我们真的懂得活用英文的又有多少人?我们都知道效果不彰,为什么我们觉得孩子应该如此学习中文?写工作单,简单的着色真的可以让孩子学到说得出口的中文吗?

看过很令人心酸的幼儿园课堂,孩子听不懂所有指令,说不出完整的句子,不会识字读书,可是被要求坐在椅上一笔一画的写中文名字,真成了“画”,孩子连ABC都不会写,只想问老师“涂写”中文的意义是什么。

明明在一二年级已经会简单描述四季,会写春夏秋冬四季跟喜欢的理由,结果看到这群孩子在三年级时,在“涂写”四季的空心字,这是个逆成长的学习。

----老师必须说的够,老师必须把孩子要运用的句型重复很多遍,给孩子机会熟悉,然后模仿。

----孩子可以模仿了,让孩子模仿。给孩子机会重复老师说的,给孩子机会跟其他孩子说,用游戏的方法说,用不同的声音说,用不同的角色说。有意义,有内容的说。从生词,短句到长句子,从默记的句子到自创,没有上面听的过程,就没有这个成长。

----听跟说让学生对语言的运用产生兴趣了,把抽象的文字带进来,让孩子体会把口语变成阅读文字的喜悦。

----听,说,读慢慢的取得,孩子现在可以试着用书写描述事件跟表达想法。写完以后,让孩子在几个朋友面前互相读出来,在大家面前读出来。大的孩子当听众时,老师可以设计一个评量表来让学生积极参与聆听。作品在教室里外陈列让他人阅读,听-说-读-写-再一个轮回。

语言学习没有捷径,听说读写的顺序不能被忽略。







Monday, September 5, 2016

Time switching 2

因为一个友善的留言,提醒了我已经很久没有写心得跟感想。脑子没停过,可是时间总是不够用。今天决定挤出时间,针对这个留言来写一篇。
这是之前的文章。http://www.msmartychen.com/2014/05/how-often-should-morning-and-afternoon.html
A friendly comment reminded me that I need to updated this blog and added something that my partner teacher and I had tried and worked.

教学真的是永远相长的。永远学不过,总是有新领悟。
Teaching is also learning and it never ends.

那篇文章写的时候,还真的是自以为是的头头是道,不过重点是在于学生有平均在早上学习的机会。后两年,我跟搭档老师的换班是直接变成每天换班了。
When I wrote the above post, I thought I found a great way to switch classes but my better half and I tried the daily switching method and we loved it even more.

这个方法似乎让很多老师退却,以为准备更多,其实这是一个更简单的方法。
Switching daily seems confusing but it's fairly simple. Look at the picture below. In fact, teachers have whole day worth of lesson to teach and any unfinished lesson can be continued the next morning.
犹他有些学校是固定星期一到星期四固定,星期五在半天时换班。有些学校就是早上下午不断的换。
学生会不会混淆?不会,他们总是记得他们前一天在哪一个班下课,就从这个班开始上课。会忘记的是老师们,怎么办?我们在门口用两个班的颜色提醒自己。看上图的星期一,早上时,英文班的门口是红色,中文班的门口是蓝色。学生换班时,他们慢慢就被训练的会帮老师换颜色,所以下午的时候,英文班的门口就变成蓝色的卡片,中文班的门口就是红色。


教书当然不是为了老师方便,这样换班的好处在哪里?中文和英文老师的备课从此都是一整天的备课,然后一整天的上课。看上图的箭头,老师备一整天的课,然后没有上完的部分,隔天的另一个半天就可以自由的上完。还有一个好处就是,一些必须去上固定时间特殊课的孩子,不会总是在错过中文或是英文课,比起传统的换法,这个方法真的友善又有益多了。 
Students basically start the day from where they end the day before. Simple as that. A reminder for teachers are two two-sided color cards. Teachers  ( eventually the students) will turn the colored cards around to show which class is in the classroom.  
This has been an easy and beneficial way for teachers and for students. 

Tuesday, June 14, 2016

Talk to the parents 跟家长沟通

美国很多家长都会到小学当志愿者(或称义工),原因有很多,了解学生在学校的上课情形;帮助小组的读书练习;帮助学校的各种特殊节日庆典;帮学校或老师做不同的琐事等等。
 Many American parents love to volunteer in school. They can see what is going on with their students; they can assist small group instructions; they can help classroom's celebrations; they can help with many errands at school.

美国沉浸式的教室是不能使用任何英文,所以如果家长不懂中文,如何帮忙?家长可以帮忙削铅笔,可以帮忙文件归档,带字卡回家剪和装袋,帮忙剪贴(我曾经把一些童书简单翻译出来,打印出来的翻译和书都标明号码,家长带回家按照号码剪贴),帮忙整理文具用品,张贴或收拾美术作品,改功课,改考试卷(这一点必须争取学校同意,因为学生的成绩不应该公开在他人眼里,除非试卷上没有名字。)
However, there is no English allowed in Immersion classrooms. If parents can't speak Chinese (or any target language), how can they help? Parents can sharpen pencils; organize paperworks; take flashcards home to cut and separate them into bags for students to use; cut and paste children's books (I have translated some simple children's books that we received for free. Parents pasted the cut out translations onto books.) Parents can correct homework and quizzes. School will need to agree before letting parents correct quizzes because students' grades should be private. Unless there are no names on the quizzes.

因为老师也不能在教室里用英文,让志愿者了解各项作业就要事先做好准备,可以简单写个英文的条子,附在待完成的物品上,也可以事先写电邮跟家长沟通。
Since teachers can't use English to communicate with parents in classrooms, they will need to prepare ahead. Anything that needs to be done should have a clear note attached to it. An email can be sent home first to require help and with instruction on certain tasks.

电邮是和家长联络的方法之一。部分的家长可以到学校,可是大部分是来不了的。家长会很感激老师和他们沟通各种事情,学生的进度,学校的活动,以及学生的问题。沟通的方法除了上面提到的电邮,还有其他方法。
Email is one way to communicate with parents. Some parents can come volunteer at school but some can't make it. They will appreciate any kind of communication that let them see the progress of students,  aware of school activities, and be notified about students' behaviors.

 1. Remind: 这是智慧手机的app,方便好用而且免费,老师需要先注册,然后上面会有说明如何设定班级,可以设定不同的班级,家长按照指示加入。老师可以选一个或全部的班级来发通知和提醒。如果是要个别通知,也有这个选项。
Remind is a nice and free APP.  Download it then register. There will be clear instruction on how to set up classroom(s).  Parents can follow direction to join your texting group. Teachers can reach out individual parent as well.

2. Newsletter: 把学习进度和目标打印寄给家长,可以用电子邮件,也可以打印出来,有些家长可能比较习惯读纸上的信息,可以打几分给这些家长就行。
Newsletter can be sent via email. Some parents prefer reading actual letters, so maybe few can be printed for the parents.

3. 影片:即使家长到了教室看到上课情况,他们也不一定了解学生在说什么。家长签下同意书之后,可以拍下学生的学习情况,制成影片给家长看。这些影片配合上课内容打上字母也是练习的工具。要注意的是,如果要上传的YouTube,一定要上传到unlisted,这样影片就无法被公开搜寻,当然,家长也要了解你的用意。如果学区有下载影片的地方,那就更方便了。
Classroom videos can be used to show parents the progress of the students. Parents will need to sign agreement to allow their kids to be filmed. When school and parents agree, the film can be uploaded to Youtube, however the setting should be on unlisted to avoid public searching. If school district has their own channel for film, then just use the District one to save troubles.

4. 教学网站:如果学区提供那就最好,如果学区没有提供方便的博客工具,老师也可以自己做一个网站,介绍学习目标和各种活动,给予中文功课的协助,如果做了影片,可以加在这里给家长看。
Blog or teaching website. Teachers can use blog to show learning objectives, embed the films, school activities, and homework help. Some school Districts provide blogs and teachers should take advantage of that.

5. 纸条:如果有些紧急要家长看到的活动或其他通知,我和我的搭档会把内容打印在颜色鲜艳的纸上,为了节省资源,尽量印小一点,一张纸可以印好几分,这些印出来的纸条会被折几折,学生书包上通常会有个提带,我们把折好的纸穿过提带用订书机钉起来。学生的书包是黑洞,很多东西进去来就从此找不到,所以这个方法,保证家长一定看到。
Sometimes a printed note is inevitable.  A note can be printed multiple times on a paper then cut apart.  Fold the cut out paper many times, thread through the loop on student's backpack.  Staple the two ends together. Make sure to print on colorful papers. Students' backpacks often become blackhole.  To have a note hanging this way can ensure parents to read the note.